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The term BEVERAGES covers a range of items - in this case we will be looking specifically at Tea, Coffee, and chocolate drinks:


Is probably the most widely consumed beverage in the world.

It is made by infusing the dried leaves of an Asiatic evergreen shrub called:

Camellia sinesis

The two main varieties of Tea plant are those of INDIA and of CHINA:

Most teas are cultivated at a height of about 2000m and are picked in spring.


Tea originated in China in 3000BC and spread to Japan in about 780 BC. It was not grown in India until the 1840's and in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in 1867. Tea was brought to Europe in the 17th century.

At first tea was regarded as a purely medicinal drink but soon became popular with the aristocracy and then with society in general.


Although the shrubs can grow to 10ft high they are usually limited to 4ft so that the leaves can be easily picked by hand.

The downy terminal bud and the top two leaves are picked from the stem. The smaller & younger the leaves the better the tea.


Orange pekoe: the highest quality - the tip of the bud

Pekoe shorter leaves without the bud

Pekoe souchong even shorter coarser leaves

Souchong leaves older still and rolled into balls

Broken broken leaves of the above grades




1. Green Tea

Unfermented and rolled immediately after harvesting

2. Black Tea

Fermented & dried

3. Oolong Tea

Which is semi-fermented

Green Teas

• Gunpowder

• Tychen (Coarse Gunpowder/Imperial Tea)

• Moroccan mint tea

• Japanese Tea (Schincha)

Black Tea

Manufacture takes place in 5 stages:

• Withering - the leaf is dried & softened

• Rolling - the cells of the left are broken down to release a mixture of constituents)

• Moist fermentation 2-3 hours at 27°C

• Desiccation 20 minutes at 90°C

• Sorting/grading

Sri Lankan (Ceylon) Teas:

Superior Orange Pekoe

Flowery Orange Pekoe

Uva Highland

Medium grown Broken Orange Pekoe

High Grown Broken orange Pekoe

Indian Teas:




China Teas:

a. Ordinary Teas




Great mandarin

b) Steamed teas

Imperial Souchong

Lapsang Souchong

Tarry Souchong


a semi-fermented tea from Taiwan which is popular in the U.S.A.

Scented Teas

Earl grey - oil of bergamot



Georgia Tea - citrus fruits & flowers

Numerous other teas :


Storage : Keep in a dry air tight container away from light


• Use water that is as lime free as possible and freshly drawn.

• Rinse out the pot with boiling water and add one teaspoon per person & one for the pot.

• Take the pot to the kettle and pour in the water just as it reaches boiling point

• Infuse for three to five minutes - remove teaballs/infusers

• Just before serving stir the tea and if the leaves are left in the pot use a strainer.

TISANE : an infusion of herbs & dried plants that is drunk hot on its own or slightly sweetened.

For example - Camomile, lemon balm, wild thyme, meadow sweet, mint and lime blossom etc.

Tea -bags:

Russian Tea: served in a glass with a wedge on lemon in a squeezer

Iced tea: usually flavoured with lemon or mint and sweetened


How much tea is required to make a litre?

How much tea is required to make a pint?

How many portions are there in a litre?



The Coffee tree which bears small red berries that contain seeds known as coffee beans originally came from Sudan & Ethiopia but is now widely cultivated.

Earliest known date 1420. Venetians imported first coffee in 1615.

Two main species of coffee tree are

Coffea arabica - elongated , oval & flat beans which are mild & aromatic

Coffea robusta ( a. k. a. canephora) - smaller & more convex - contain 2.5 times more caffeine - produce a more full-bodied & bitter drink

these two varieties make up 95% of world production

• Minor varieties include - Liberica, Excelsia



1. The fruits are treated to remove pulp, the "green" coffee are graded & bagged.

2. Roasting: The beans are continuously stirred during the roasting process - the degree of roasting is a matter of taste the more the coffee is roasted the stronger & more bitter the resulting coffee. The range is from very light roast (popular in USA), medium roast (Italy & France) , High roast (Holland & Germany), very High roast (Middle East & Turkey)

3. Grinding: The fineness of the grinding depends on the method used to brew the coffee. Ideally it should take place just before the coffee is made.

Storage: Store in a sealed container in a refrigerator, N.B. coffee loses its aroma quickly after roasting.

Caffeine: This alkaloid gives coffee its stimulating quality

Types of Coffee:

Coffee can be divided into the country of origin & the degree of roasting as well as type of bean. The most famous producers are:

Brazil, Arabia, Columbia, Ethiopia, Mocha (India), Mexico, Costa Rica, Ivory Coast, Angola, Zaïre etc.

Viennese - coffee with the addition of fig essence

Decaffeinated. - with caffeine removed.

Instant - spray dried/freeze dried/liquid extract

Chicory mixtures produce a cheap strong heavy drink



1. Filter Coffee

2. Percolated

3. Vacuum infusion - Cona

4. Espresso - pressurised steam forced through the coffee. - Cappuccino strong espresso coffee to which frothy cream or milk is added pinch of powdered chocolate served on top.

5. Turkish method - poured into boiling water with almost equal quantities of sugar. This mixture is heated up to the point of boiling three times a few drops of cold water are added to settle the grounds -then served in cups or small glasses.

6. Cafetiére or plunger pot.

7. Urn

How much ground coffee is required to make a litre?

How much ground coffee is required to make a pint?

How many portions are there in a litre?


The cocoa plant is a small tropical tree originally grown in Central & South America but now grown in largely in West Africa.

The fruit is a large pod 4-12inches in length and about 4 in. in diameter. It has a leathery rind and contains 25-75 seeds in 5 rows.

Two main species of Cocoa are Criolli & Forastero.



• Fermenting to prevent germination to encourage enzymes which develop flavour.

• Drying either in the sun or in drying chambers

• Roasting to develop flavour & aroma and give even colour.

• Winnowing - removes shell leaving NIBS

• Alkalising (Dutch processing) - nibs are tumbled in a warm alkali solution further develops flavour

• Grinding - nibs are ground into very small particles, this process releases a lot of fat called COCOA BUTTER and the mass becomes a thick syrup

• Extracting - some of the fat is removed and the solid mass is pulverised and sieved leaving a fine powder.


Cocoa Powder: the powder resulting from the above process which can be made into a drink by adding hot water or milk.

Plain chocolate : the mass is mixed with sugar, refined and standardised (Conched) - set in slabs/bars this product is also known as Couverture

Milk Chocolate: as above with the addition of milk "crumb" that is condensed milk & mass reduced to powder form.

Drinking Chocolate: is prepared from chocolate powder or flakes with the addition of hot milk or water.

Other Brands :




the have the addition of malted extracts