- Auvernat - Auvernat Noir
- Bigney - Black St. Peter
- Blanc Doux - Blauburgunder
- Blauer Klevner - Bordo
- Bouchet - Bouchy - Breton
Franc - Cabernet Sauvignon - Carmenet
- Chardonnay - Chenin Blanc -
Chevrier - Chiavennasca
- Columbier - Coraillod -
Rose Aromatique - Gewürztraminer - Green
Grape - Gros Bouchet
- Medoc Noir - Merlot - Morillon
- Muscat - Muscat Blanc à
Petit Grains - Muskat-Sylvaner
Cabernet - Petite Sainte-Marie - Petite
Vidure - Picutener - Pugnet
- Pineau de la Loire - Pinot Blanco
- Pinot Chardonnay - Pinot
Noir - Plavac Mali - Primitivo
Traminer - Rheinriesling - Rhine
Riesling - Riesling - Riesling
Blanc - Sauvignon Gris - Sauvignon
Noir - Sauvignon Jaune - Sauvignon
Rose - Schwartz Klevner - Semillion
- Sémillon - Shiraz
- Spanna - Spätburgunder
- Steen - Syrah
- Vert Dore - Vidure - Vranac
Pinot - Weisser Clevner - Weisser
Riesling - White Riesling
ST. PETER: Thought to be the early 19th century Californian name for
the variety subsequently known as Zinfandel.
Clone of Pinot Noir widely grown in Germany and Austria.
Also known as Spätburgunder in Austria.
FRANC: Recently - (4-97) - discovered to be one of the parent grape
varieties that gave rise to the Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar.
Mainly found in cooler, damper climatic conditions than its offspring. Shows
moderately vigorous growth and earlier wood and crop maturation than Cabernet
Sauvignon. Recommended for grafting to the 3309 root in New York state where
it has shown good winter hardiness. Widely grown in the Loire region where
it is known as the Breton and in large areas of
southwest France where it is sometimes known as Bouchy
or Bouchet. Other
french synonym names are Carmenet, Gros
Bouchet and Veron. In N.E Italy the variety
is known as the Bordo
winegrape. Bordeaux wines commonly contain a blend of both Cabernet varietal
wines, a practice increasingly being followed in California and elsewhere.
Wine from these grapes has a deep purple color, when young, with a herbaceous
aroma. Just like Cabernet Sauvignon, North American growth is mainly confined
to the cooler coastal regions; Long Island (N.Y.) and the Pacific Northwest
showing signs of being very hospitable. New Zealand has also proved to be
a potential good home.
SAUVIGNON: A "noble" grape famous as one of the main varieties, along
with Merlot, Cabernet Franc and others used to
create the magnificent french Bordeaux region blended red wines. This variety
has several alias names such as Petit Cabernet, Petit
Vidure and Vidure.
(The latter name is the one used by those who subscribed to the now dubious
theory that it was the original vine from which the cépage originated).
Where grown in Italy it is sometimes referred to as the Uva
Francese. Although recorded as present in the Bordeaux region since
at least the 17th century, parental provenance has always been unsure. Recent
research, (Meredith and Bowers,
"Nature Genetics Journal" 5-97), has unexpectedly discovered that the
original parents of this variety were Sauvignon Blanc
and Cabernet Franc, an astounding reversal of previous
assumptions. A "hard" grape, it helps make wines of classic breed, intensity
and complexity that often need to bottle-age for at least 5-10 years in
order to reach peak flavor condition. The most successful plantings in North
America are mainly on Long Island (N.Y.) and the cooler regions of northern
California. The vine is quite cold-hardy, although it acclimates slowly
and can be injured by cold freezes in December and early January. In New
York state the recommended rootstock graft is 3309. It has a late bud break,
is relatively resistant to cracking and bunch rots, has vigorous growth
and ripens in late October. In the warmer regions of California, grapes
made into a single varietal wine will often produce higher than optimum
levels of alcohol due to high sugar content and, conversely, lower than
optimum acid levels in most years and so may tend to age less successfully
than the blended french versions. Aromas and flavors include: Black-currant,
blackberry, mint (etc). In the last decades of the twentieth century many
other countries have seen their regions develop into prime producers - (e.g:
Argentina, Chile, Italy and New Zealand).
(aka Feinburgunder and Morillon
in Austria). This variety is the best-known white wine grape grown in France
and is also known as Pinot Chardonnay, an invented
synonym name for the benefit of Anglo/American consumers, reportedly derived
from an earlier period when the variety was mistakenly considered to be
a white mutation of Pinot Noir, and still used by some
in the Mâcon and Chablis regions. Other local names in the various
regions of France include the aliases Aubaine, Auvernat,
Beaunois, Epinette Blanche, Petite
Sainte-Marie and Weisser Clevner etc. The Chardonnay
vine is widely planted in the Burgundy and Chablis regions. Clone variety
numbers commonly used include 76, 95, 124 and 548, plus some others, grafted
to suitable calcium/lime tolerant, moderately vigorous rootstocks such as
41B or 161-49C. There, as in other cool climate regions, the wine made from
it is often aged in small oak barrels to produce strong flavors and aromas.
Possessing a fruity character - (e.g: Apple, lemon, citrus) - subsequent
barrel-influenced flavors include "oak", "vanilla", and malolactic fermentation
imparted "creamy- buttery" components. Hugely successful in many regions
of the world due to its mid-season ripening - (late September to early October)
- and versatility. Quite cold-hardy although early to bud and susceptible
to bunch rots, yet retains fruit crispness in warmer growing years. Australia
and New Zealand have succeeded in producing world-class wines in recent
years, from selected clones of this variety, by using cold fermentation
methods that result in a desired "flinty" taste in the dry versions.
BLANC: A widely grown white-wine grape variety, known as Steen
in South Africa, Pineau de la Loire in the Loire
region of France and under the alias name White Pinot
(Pinot Blanco) elsewhere in the world. Often made in a number of styles
with or without some residual sugar. It is the favored grape of the Anjou
region of France and, although naturally a hard, acidic grape slow to
mature, is made into fine sweet wines that age well for a least ten years
in the bottle. In the U.S. the grape all too often ends up in the generic
jug wines of bulk producers as acidity enhancer for otherwise flabby high
Synonym name for the Chardonnay variety in Germany
and the regions of Vienna and Burgenland of Austria. (See also Morillon
("geh-verts-tram-in-er"). A clone of the parent Traminer
variety. Widely grown, and one of the mainstay grapes for which the Alsace
is famous, the popular Gewürztraminer produces white wines with a strong
floral aroma and lychee nut like flavor. It is often regarded as somewhat
similar in style to the (Johannisberg) Riesling
- (below) - when vinified as slightly sweet yet tart. Occasionally it is
made into a "botrytized" late harvest dessert style wine. Does well in the
cooler coastal regions of Western U.S. - (where it ripens in late September)
- Australia and New Zealand. In Australia the variety is also known under
several alias names. Among these are Traminer Musque,
Gentil Rose Aromique and Red Traminer.
Cool climate growers should be aware that, in addition to quite large successful
plantings of the above variety, a well-regarded cross named Traminette,
developed by Cornell University in the U.S.A over the last 30 years, is
currently very successfully cultivated on small commercial acreages in the
Finger Lakes region of New York State and several other cool northern regions
of the USA.
RIESLING: (aka White Riesling in New York state
(USA), Ontario and British Columbia (Canada), Riesling
in Germany, Rheinriesling in Austria, Riesling
Renano in Italy and Rhine Riesling in Australia).
A white-wine variety widely grown along the Rhine river and tributaries
- (e.g: Rheingau, Rheinhessen, Mosel, Nahe regions etc.) - in Germany and
also in other cool temperate regions of Europe. It is also grown in N. America,
where it can produce a flowery, fruity dry wine with high acid and low alcohol
not unlike the german "Kabinett" version or a semi-dry style with some residual
sugar similar to the german "Spätlese" version. If infected with appropriate
amounts of "botrytis", it can make outstanding late-harvest wines - (e.g:
comparable to the german "Auslese" series). The Finger Lakes region of New
York state in the U.S. and the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada produce
excellent dry versions in the Mosel and Alsation styles in addition to consistent
freezing temperature extracted juice made into "ice-wine", (aka "eiswein").
Successful clones in New York include the Neustadt selected Clone 90, Clone
239 of the Moselle and Clone 356 from Geisenheim. The North-West coast of
N. America seems to have the right conditions for creating the richer, earthier
Rheinhessen taste in many versions, as do the cooler regions of California.
Australia now produces excellent versions of the dry, crisp Alsation-style,
as well as fruitier semi-sweet Mosel-type wines, as has New Zealand in recent
Classic grape widely grown in the Bordeaux region of France and elsewhere.
The red wine bears a resemblance to Cabernet Sauvignon
wine, with which it is sometimes blended, but is usually not so intense,
with softer tannins. Matures earlier than Cabernet Sauvignon, with mid-late
ripening. Moderate cold-hardiness. In California it is a popular varietal
on its own and also as a percentage constituent of the red wine blend resembling
Bordeaux claret called "Meritage". It does extremely well in the state of
Washington and shows great promise on Long Island, N.Y. Results in the Finger
Lakes region of N.Y., where it ripens in early October, have been mixed
due its relative lack of cold-hardiness and the fruit subject to bunch rots.
Other countries such as Chile, Argentina and New Zealand also seem to have
a suitable climate for this variety. The grape has many alias names such
as Médoc Noir, Petit Merle,
Vitraille, Crabutet Noir and
Synonym name for the Chardonnay grape in the Austrian
region of Styria. (See also Feinburgunder
Another "cépage" family of clone varieties, making both red and
white wines. Most are of the muscat type, having the unique aromatic character
commonly associated with muscat wines. These include the Muscat
Blanc, (a.k.a Muscadel, Moscato
di Canelli), all alias names for the premier cépage varietal
Muscat Blanc à Petit Grains. These clones
are mostly used for making medium-sweet and dessert style table or fortified
wines. An example of these is "Constantia", a centuries-old wine blend
still made in South Africa from the Orange Muscat
grape, a darker skinned mutation of the Muscat Frontignan
clone, (the latter also known as the Frontignac
in Australia), and wine made from the Pontac, a
red-wine grape translocated from south-west France. Small acreages of
Orange Muscat in the Central Valley of California allow a local variation
of this wine to be made by at least one producer, a situation that also
occurs in Australia. Hot climate producers of sparkling wines often use
the various Muscat grape clones to create wines in the style of Italian
Spumante. Lesser regarded clones of the cépage include Muscat
of Alexandria and others.
BLANC À PETIT GRAINS: (See Muscat above).
(has synonym names of Spanna in the northern hills,
Picutener and Pugnet in
N.W. Piedmont and as Chiavennasca grape in Lombardy).
Grape responsible for the long-lived, fine red wines of the Piedmont region
of Italy. The role of honor includes traditionally vinified "Barolo",
"Gattinara", "Barbaresco" and "Ghemme"; all huge, tannic wines that at
their best can take decades to mature.
MUSCAT: (See Muscat above).
DE LA LOIRE: Alternate name for Chenin Blanc.
CHARDONNAY: Better known as the Chardonnay grape.
NOIR: The premier grape "cépage" of the Burgundy region of France,
producing a red wine that is lighter in color than the Bordeaux reds (such
as the Cabernet's or Merlot). Cépage clones of this variety have
many alias names such as Auvernat Noir, Blauer
Klevner, Coraillod, Noirien,
Schwartz Klevner, Vert Dore, and
even plain numbers. It has proved to be a capriciously acting and difficult
grape for N. American wineries, best results being obtained in cool, fog-liable
regions such as the Carneros region of northern California. Choice of a
suitable clone version is critical, as is careful vineyard pruning technique
and planting density. The importance of clone version is amply demonstrated
with the recommendation of the "Wadensville" (Wädenswil) and "Mariafelder"
(Klevner Mariafeld) clones, the latter ripening in mid-October, for use
in the Finger Lakes region of New York State where they has consistently
produced quality wines despite not being as cold-hardy as some other clones.
Oregon growers seem to have a preference for the "Pommard" clone. The worlds
best "quality" wines are reputed to result from a mixing of suitable clones;
a common practice in Burgundy, France, where numbers 667, 777 and 828 appear
to be currently favored in addition to the reliable 114 and 115 when grafted
to suitably limestone tolerant, moderately vigorous rootstocks such as Fercal
and 161-49C. Cherished aromas and flavors often detected in varietal wines
include cherry, mint, raspberry, truffles and the ubiquitous gamey odor
in new wines often referred to as "animalé" by the french winemaker.
German growers know this grape under several alias names, such as Spätburgunder
(or as Frühburgunder, thought to be its
mutant clone). The mutant clone variety known as Pinot
Meunier is widely planted around the world under several alias names
and is used to produce the main blending wine for so-called "Blanc de Noir"
sparkling wines. In California the cépage has often been erroneously
divided into various Gamay varieties until recent times.
Also known as the Weisser Riesling. Premier white
wine grape of Germany and Alsace, known as Rheinriesling
in Austria and Riesling Renano in Northern
Italy. (See (Johannisberg) Riesling above).
Austrian name for the Riesling grape of Germany.
RIESLING: Australian name for the Riesling
grape of Germany. (See above).
BLANC: Classic white-wine variety commonly planted in the Bordeaux and
eastern Loire regions of France. Shows vigorous growth and is late maturing.
Members of the cépage are now thought to be descendants of the ancient
Fié variety once common in the Loire region of
France. The sauvignon cépage apparently derives the latter part of
its name from the color of its skin. Other members include the recent -
(4-97) - genetic parental link to Cabernet Sauvignon
and other mutations known as the Sauvignon Noir, Sauvignon
Jaune and Sauvignon Rose. The last named grape is
also known as Sauvignon Gris. In the Styria region
of Austria the variety is occasionally referred to as the Muskat-Sylvaner.
All versions of the cépage show a tendency towards a grassy, herbaceous
flavor in the grapewine, often referred to as "gooseberry" by professional
tasters, when the grapes are grown in temperate regions. In warmer regions,
the flavors and aromas tend to be more citruslike, (e.g: grapefruit or pear),
plus the characteristic "earthy" taste. New Zealand has had much success
with the grape in recent years.
Classic grape widely grown in the Bordeaux region of France and elsewhere.
This grape variety has a distinct fig-like character. In France, Australia
and increasingly in California it is often blended with Sauvignon Blanc to cut some of the strong "gooseberry" flavor of the
latter grape and create better balance. Wineries in many countries also
use the grape to create dry single-varietal white wines. Australian grapes,
particularly those grown in the Hunter Valley region, where the fruit has
also been known historically as the Hunter Riesling,
are famous for producing dry and sweet wines from this varietal that will
age admirably for 20 to 30 years. Other alias names used for this variety
are Chevrier, Columbier,
Malaga and Blanc Doux. Those
grown in South Africa, where the grape is known as the
Green Grape and also as Semillion, have not
fared so well in popular favor and are not extensively planted at present.
When infected by the "noble rot" fungi, (Botrytis cineria), it can be used
to produce first-class sweet white wines such as those of the french Sauternes.
Alternate name for the french Syrah clone grape grown
in Australia and responsible for very big red wines that are not quite
as intense in flavor as the french Rhone versions. In the past it was
also known under the alias name Hermitage.
Alternate local name for the Nebbiolo grape grown
in the Piedmont district of Vercelli in Italy.
(see Blauburgunder above).
(see Chenin Blanc above).
A grape variety associated with the Rhone Valley region of France, famous
for creating "Hermitage" red wine. There, some regard the grape as taking
two forms, the Grosse Syrah and Petite
Syrah, distinguished only by berry size. Experts reject this distinction
but it has in the past led some wine producers in North and South America
to mistake plantings of the californian Petite
Sirah, which produces a very dark red and tannic wine judged simple
in comparison to the true Rhone Syrah, as the latter grape. DNA analysis
has now shown - 8/1997 - there is in fact a probable relationship due
to the chance seedling or selection, whose parentage derives from the
Rhone region Peloursin and Syrah
cultivars, discovered and named Durif in the 1880's.
In the cooler regions of Australia a (presumed) clone of the Rhone variety,
once known as the Scyras, is grown very successfully
and now known as Shiraz. In the state of California,
depending on location, vintage or fermentation technique, the grape is
used to either produce a spicy, complex wine or a simple wine. Considerable
acreage is grown in South Africa, and also in Argentina where it has historically
been called the Balsamina grape until the late 1960's.
RIESLING: South African, (and german), name for the true Riesling
grape of Germany. Also called the White Riesling.
It is important to note that the Cape Riesling, aka
Paarl or South African Riesling,
is actually the Crouchen grape that originated
in the Pyrenees region of France and was relocated to South Africa where
it can be legally sold under the name "Riesling".
RIESLING: Alias name for the (Johannisberg) Riesling
grape. Both names are used, sometimes in the same region, in the USA,
Canada and elsewhere.
An important grape variety, also thought to be the variety once known
as Black St. Peter in early 19th century California
lore, currently grown in California and used to produce robust red wine
as well as very popular "blush wines" called "white Zinfandel". Zinfandel
is noted for the fruit-laden, berry-like aroma and prickly taste characteristics
in its red version and pleasant strawberry reminders when made into a
"blush" wine. While its origins are not clear it has been positively identified,
via DNA analysis at UC Davis (California), as the Primitivo
(di Gioia), a variety grown in Apulia, southern Italy. According to
an Italian report of 1996 the latter variety may have a relationship to
members of the Vranac variety cépage grown
in Montenegro, the state that, combined with Serbia, constitutes what
remains of the former Yugoslavia. Other contenders were certain mutated
members of the Mali Plavac, (a.k.a Plavac
Mali), cépage varieties which are mainly grown in the coastal
area known as Dalmatia, a province of Croatia recently a part of the former
Yugoslavia and located just across the Adriatic sea from the shores of
Italian Apulia. Research is presently (7/98) underway to explore possible
relationships. The origin of the grapename "Zinfandel" in California is
currently not known but is thought by some to be a corruption of Zierfandler,
a completely unrelated white variety still grown in the Balkan region
of Europe. It has been noted that mid-19th century catalogs mention a
red (ie. "roter") mutation of that variety. A plausible hypothesis is
that a naming error arose due to attribution and shipping mistakes made
during unreliable early-19th century transport and handling to New World
End of Classic Grape Varieties and Synonyms Text.